Predictores psicosociales de la exposición y difusión de noticias falsas en Costa Rica

Palabras clave: noticias falsas, exposición, reconocimiento, difusión, motivaciones, actitudes, Costa Rica

Resumen

Este estudio investiga los predictores psicosociales y sociodemográficos de la exposición a noticias falsas entre adultos costarricenses, así como su autopercepción de la capacidad de reconocerlas y de difundirlas. Se condujo una encuesta representativa por muestreo estratificado aleatorio aplicada a 805 usuarios de teléfonos celulares en 2019, con un 67% de mujeres y una edad promedio de 38,83 (DT=15,75). En el ámbito actitudinal, los resultados muestran una asociación positiva entre el autoritarismo de derecha y la difusión intencional de noticias falsas en redes sociales. En el ámbito motivacional, se encontraron asociaciones positivas entre una motivación defensiva y la exposición a noticias falsas en medios de comunicación y vía WhatsApp, así como asociaciones entre motivaciones defensivas y de precisión con la autopercepción de la capacidad de reconocer noticias falsas. Las mujeres, las personas con mayor nivel educativo y las más jóvenes se exponen más a noticias falsas, mientras que los hombres y las personas con mayor educación dicen ser más capaces de identificar noticias falsas.

Biografía del autor/a

Carlos Brenes Peralta, Universidad de Costa Rica

Investigador. Labora en el Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Realizó sus estudios de posgrado en Investigación Social y Comunicación en la Universidad Libre de Amsterdam (Holanda) y su doctorado en Comunicación Política en la Universidad de Amsterdam. Áreas de interés investigativo: la psicología social de los usos y efectos de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, la exposición selectiva y procesamiento de contenido noticioso, la investigación en opinión pública, desinformación y noticias falsas.

Rolando Pérez Sánchez, Universidad de Costa Rica

Profesor catedrático. Universidad de Costa Rica. Labora en el Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas y en la Escuela de Psicología de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Sus estudios doctorales los realizó en Sociología de la Comunicación en la Universidad de Frankfurt (Alemania). Áreas de interés investigativo: la psicología social de los usos y efectos de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación, así como los procesos socio-cognitivos y emocionales asociados al uso de redes sociales.

Ignacio Siles González, Universidad de Costa Rica

Profesor Catedrático. Labora en el Centro de Investigación en Comunicación (CICOM) y en la Escuela de Ciencias de la Comunicación Colectiva de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Realizó estudios de doctorado en Medios, Tecnología y Sociedad en la Universidad Northwestern (Estados Unidos). Áreas de interés investigativo: comunicación, tecnología y sociedad; estudios críticos de la datificación.

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Publicado
2021-04-19
Cómo citar
Brenes Peralta, C., Pérez Sánchez, R., & Siles González, I. (2021). Predictores psicosociales de la exposición y difusión de noticias falsas en Costa Rica. Cuadernos.Info , (49), 214-238. https://doi.org/10.7764/cdi.49.27437